Joseph Schlessinger

Signal Transduction: All cells must know how to respond to their environment. They must be able to divide, grow, secrete, synthesize, degrade, differentiate, cease growth, and even die when the appropriate signal is given. This signal invariably is a molecule which binds to a receptor, typically on the cell surface. (Exceptions include light transduction in retinal cells when the signal is a photon, and lipophilic hormones which pass through the membrane.) Binding is followed by shape changes in transmembrane protein receptors which effectively transmits the signal into the cytoplasm. We will discuss three main types of signal transduction pathways: